Unternehmen Merkur

Unternehmen Merkur Navigationsmenü

Das Unternehmen Merkur war eine Schlacht im Zweiten Weltkrieg, die deutsche Fallschirmjäger, unterstützt von Gebirgsjägern, zur Eroberung der Insel Kreta durchführten, und zugleich eine der ersten großen Luftlandeoperationen der Geschichte. Das Unternehmen Merkur war eine Schlacht im Zweiten Weltkrieg, die deutsche Fallschirmjäger, unterstützt von Gebirgsjägern, zur Eroberung der Insel Kreta. „Unternehmen Merkur“ – deutscher Angriff auf Kreta. Im Mai landeten mehr als deutsche Fallschirmjäger auf Kreta. Ihnen standen mehr als Unternehmen „Merkur“ (Geschichte im Detail) | García, Juan Vázquez, González, Oscar | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit. Außerdem ist die Merkur Versicherung durch ihre Tochterunternehmen in Tschechien, Slowenien, Kroatien und Serbien vertreten. Eine vollständige Auflistung der.

Unternehmen Merkur

Das Unternehmen Merkur war eine Schlacht im Zweiten Weltkrieg, die deutsche Fallschirmjäger, unterstützt von Gebirgsjägern, zur Eroberung der Insel Kreta. Besungen wurde ihr mythisierter Ruhm in dem "Lied der Fallschirmjäger" oder in dem nach der Operation "Merkur" eigens komponierten Lied "Auf Kreta im. Das Unternehmen Merkur war eine Schlacht im Zweiten Weltkrieg, die deutsche Fallschirmjäger, unterstützt von Gebirgsjägern, zur Eroberung der Insel Kreta durchführten, und zugleich eine der ersten großen Luftlandeoperationen der Geschichte.

In mid-May, the four squadrons had about two dozen aircraft, of which only about twelve were serviceable due to a lack of tools and spares. The unfinished ground at Pediada-Kastelli was blocked with trenches and heaps of soil and all but narrow flight paths were blocked at Heraklion and Rethymno by barrels full of earth.

At Maleme, blast pens were built for the aircraft, and barrels full of petrol were kept ready to be ignited by machine-gun fire. Around each ground, a few field guns, anti-aircraft guns, two infantry tanks and two or three light tanks were sited.

The three areas were made into independent sectors, but there were only eight QF 3-inch and twenty Bofors 40 mm anti-aircraft guns.

Cadets from the Gendarmerie academy and recruits from Greek training centres in the Peloponnese had been transferred to Crete to replace the trained soldiers sent to fight on the mainland.

These troops were already organised into numbered recruit training regiments, and it was decided to use this structure to organise the Greek troops, supplementing them with experienced men arriving from the mainland.

The British Commonwealth contingent consisted of the original 14,man British garrison and another 25, British and Commonwealth troops evacuated from the mainland.

The evacuees were typically intact units; composite units improvised locally; stragglers from every type of army unit; and deserters ; most of them lacked heavy equipment.

There were about 15, front-line Commonwealth infantry, augmented by about 5, non-infantry personnel equipped as infantry and a composite Australian artillery battery.

As the weeks passed, some 3, British, 2, Australian and 1, New Zealander troops were evacuated to Egypt, but it became evident that it would not be possible to remove all the unwanted troops.

On 25 April, Hitler signed Directive 28, ordering the invasion of Crete. The Royal Navy retained control of the waters around Crete, so an amphibious assault would have been a risky proposition.

With German air superiority assured, an airborne invasion was chosen. This was to be the first big airborne invasion, although the Germans had made smaller parachute and glider -borne assaults in the invasions of Denmark and Norway , Belgium , the Netherlands , France and mainland Greece.

In Greece, Fallschirmjäger had been dispatched to capture the bridge over the Corinth Canal , which was being readied for demolition by the Royal Engineers.

German engineers landed near the bridge in gliders, while parachute infantry attacked the perimeter defence. The bridge was damaged in the fighting, which slowed the German advance and gave the Allies time to evacuate 18, troops to Crete and 23, to Egypt, albeit with the loss of most of their heavy equipment.

In May, Fliegerkorps XI moved from Germany to the Athens area, but the destruction wrought during the invasion of Greece forced a postponement of the attack to 20 May.

New airfields were built, and long-range bombers, dive-bombers, 90 Bf s, 90 Bf s and 40 reconnaissance aircraft of Fliegerkorps VIII were assembled, along with Ju 52 transport aircraft and gliders.

The Bf s and Stuka dive-bombers were based on forward airfields at Molaoi, Melos and Karpathos then Scarpanto , with Corinth and Argos as base airfields.

British night bombers attacked the areas in the last few nights before the invasion, and Luftwaffe aircraft eliminated the British aircraft on Crete.

The Germans planned to use Fallschirmjäger to capture important points on the island, including airfields that could then be used to fly in supplies and reinforcements.

Fliegerkorps XI was to co-ordinate the attack by the 7th Flieger Division , which would land by parachute and glider, followed by the 22nd Air Landing Division once the airfields were secure.

The operation was scheduled for 16 May , but was postponed to 20 May, with the 5th Mountain Division replacing the 22nd Air Landing Division.

It had only been in March , that Student added an attack on Crete to Operation Marita; supply difficulties delayed the assembly of Fliegerkorps XI and its Ju 52s, then more delays forced a postponement until 20 May The War Cabinet in Britain had expected the Germans to use paratroops in the Balkans, and on 25 March, British decrypts of Luftwaffe Enigma wireless traffic revealed that Fliegerkorps XI was assembling Ju 52s for glider-towing, and British Military Intelligence reported that aircraft were already in the Balkans.

Notice of the target of these units did not arrive, but on 18 April it was found that Ju 52s had been withdrawn from routine operations, and on 24 April it became known that Göring had reserved them for a special operation.

The operation turned out to be a descent on the Corinth Canal on 26 April, but then a second operation was discovered and that supplies particularly of fuel , had to be delivered to Fliegerkorps XI by 5 May; a Luftwaffe message referred to Crete for the first time was decrypted on 26 April.

The British Chiefs of Staff were apprehensive that the target could be changed to Cyprus or Syria as a route into Iraq during the Anglo-Iraqi War 2—31 May and suspected that references to Crete were a deception, despite having no grounds for this, and on 3 May Churchill thought that the attack might be a decoy.

On 22 April, the HQ in Crete was ordered to burn all material received through the Ultra link, but Churchill ruled that the information must still be provided.

When Freyberg took over on 30 April, the information was disguised as information from a spy in Athens. Remaining doubts about an attack on Crete were removed on 1 May, when the Luftwaffe was ordered to stop bombing airfields on the island and mining Souda Bay and to photograph all of the island.

By 5 May, it was clear that the attack was not imminent and next day, 17 May was revealed as the expected day for the completion of preparations, along with the operation orders for the plan from the D-day landings in the vicinity of Maleme and Chania, Heraklion and Rethymno.

Admiral Wilhelm Canaris , chief of the Abwehr , originally reported 5, British troops on Crete and no Greek forces.

It is not clear whether Canaris, who had an extensive intelligence network at his disposal, was misinformed or was attempting to sabotage Hitler's plans Canaris was killed much later in the war for supposedly participating in the 20 July Plot.

Abwehr also predicted the Cretan population would welcome the Germans as liberators, due to their strong republican and anti- monarchist feelings and would want to receive the " King George and his entourage escaped from Greece via Crete, with the help of Greek and Commonwealth soldiers, Cretan civilians and even a band of prisoners who had been released from captivity by the Germans.

General Alexander Löhr , the theatre commander, was convinced the island could be taken with two divisions, but decided to keep 6th Mountain Division in Athens as a reserve.

The Germans used the new 7. A quarter of the German paratroops jumped with an MP 40 submachine gun , often carried with a bolt-action Karabiner 98k rifle and most German squads had an MG 34 machine gun.

Heavy equipment like the Leichtgeschütz 40 were dropped with a special triple-parachute harness to bear the extra weight.

The troops also carried special strips of cloth to unfurl in patterns to signal to low-flying fighters, to co-ordinate air support and for supply drops.

The German procedure was for individual weapons to be dropped in canisters, due to their practice of exiting the aircraft at low altitude. This was a flaw that left the paratroopers armed only with knives, pistols and grenades in the first few minutes after landing.

Poor design of German parachutes compounded the problem; the standard German harness had only one riser to the canopy and could not be steered.

Even the 25 percent of paratroops armed with sub-machine guns were at a disadvantage, given the weapon's limited range.

Many Fallschirmjäger were shot before they reached weapons canisters. Greek troops were armed with Mannlicher—Schönauer 6.

The garrison had been stripped of its best crew-served weapons , which were sent to the mainland; there were twelve obsolescent St.

Many Greek soldiers had fewer than thirty rounds of ammunition but could not be supplied by the British, who had no stocks in the correct calibres.

Those with insufficient ammunition were posted to the eastern sector of Crete, where the Germans were not expected in force.

The 8th Greek Regiment was under strength and many soldiers were poorly trained and poorly equipped. The unit was attached to 10th New Zealand Infantry Brigade Brigadier Howard Kippenberger , who placed it in a defensive position around the village of Alikianos where, with local civilian volunteers, they held out against the German 7th Engineer Battalion.

Though Kippenberger had referred to them as " The engineers had to be reinforced by two battalions of German paratroops, yet the 8th Regiment held on until 27 May, when the Germans made a combined arms assault by Luftwaffe aircraft and mountain troops.

The Greek stand helped to protect the retreat of the Commonwealth forces, who were evacuated at Sfakia. Beevor and McDougal Stewart write that the defence of Alikianos gained at least 24 more hours for the completion of the final leg of the evacuation behind Layforce.

The troops who were protected as they withdrew had begun the battle with more and better equipment than the 8th Greek Regiment.

British and Commonwealth troops used the standard Lee—Enfield rifle, Bren light machine gun and Vickers medium machine gun.

The British had about 85 artillery pieces of various calibres, many of them captured Italian weapons without sights. The guns were camouflaged, often in nearby olive groves, and some were ordered to hold their fire during the initial assault to mask their positions from German fighters and dive-bombers.

High explosive rounds in small calibres were considered impractical. Most tanks were used as mobile pillboxes to be brought up and dug in at strategic points.

One Matilda had a damaged turret crank that allowed it to turn clockwise only. Many British tanks broke down in the rough terrain, not in combat. The British and their allies did not possess sufficient Universal Carriers or trucks, which would have provided the mobility and firepower needed for rapid counter-attacks before the invaders could consolidate.

Hitler authorised Unternehmen Merkur named after the swift Roman god Mercury with Directive 28; the forces used were to come from airborne and air units already in the area and units intended for Unternehmen Barbarossa were to conclude operations before the end of May, Barbarossa was not to be delayed by the attack on Crete, which had to begin soon or would be cancelled.

Planning was rushed and much of Unternehmen Merkur was improvised, including the use of troops who were not trained for airborne assaults.

A compromise plan by Hermann Göring was agreed, and in the final draft, Maleme was to be captured first, while not ignoring the other objectives.

The invasion force was divided into Kampfgruppen battlegroups , Centre, West and East, each with a code name following the classical theme established by Mercury; glider-borne troops, 10, paratroops, 5, airlifted mountain soldiers and 7, seaborne troops were allocated to the invasion.

The largest proportion of the forces were in Group West. German airborne theory was based on parachuting a small force onto enemy airfields. The force would capture the perimeter and local anti-aircraft guns, allowing a much larger force to land by glider.

One transport pilot crash-landed on a beach, others landed in fields, discharged their cargo and took off again. With the Germans willing to sacrifice some transport aircraft to win the battle, it is not clear whether a decision to destroy the airfields would have made any difference, particularly given the number of troops delivered by expendable gliders.

At on 20 May , German paratroopers, jumping out of dozens of Junkers Ju 52 aircraft, landed near Maleme Airfield and the town of Chania.

The 21st , 22nd and 23rd New Zealand battalions held Maleme Airfield and the vicinity. The Germans suffered many casualties in the first hours of the invasion: a company of III Battalion, 1st Assault Regiment lost killed out of men, and of men in III Battalion were killed on the first day.

Many gliders following the paratroops were hit by mortar fire seconds after landing, and the New Zealand and Greek defenders almost annihilated the glider troops who landed safely.

Some paratroopers and gliders missed their objectives near both airfields and set up defensive positions to the west of Maleme Airfield and in "Prison Valley" near Chania.

Both forces were contained and failed to take the airfields, but the defenders had to deploy to face them.

Greek police and cadets took part, with the 1st Greek Regiment Provisional combining with armed civilians to rout a detachment of German paratroopers dropped at Kastelli.

The 8th Greek Regiment and elements of the Cretan forces severely hampered movement by the 95th Reconnaissance Battalion on Kolimbari and Paleochora , where Allied reinforcements from North Africa could be landed.

A second wave of German transports supported by Luftwaffe and Regia Aeronautica attack aircraft, arrived in the afternoon, dropping more paratroopers and gliders containing assault troops.

The Greeks lacked equipment and supplies, particularly the Garrison Battalion. The Germans pierced the defensive cordon around Heraklion on the first day, seizing the Greek barracks on the west edge of the town and capturing the docks; the Greeks counter-attacked and recaptured both points.

The Germans dropped leaflets threatening dire consequences if the Allies did not surrender immediately. The next day, Heraklion was heavily bombed and the depleted Greek units were relieved and assumed a defensive position on the road to Knossos.

As night fell, none of the German objectives had been secured. Of German transport aircraft used during the airdrop, seven were lost to anti-aircraft fire.

The bold plan to attack in four places to maximise surprise, rather than concentrating on one, seemed to have failed, although the reasons were unknown to the Germans at the time.

Among the paratroopers who landed on the first day was former world heavyweight champion boxer Max Schmeling , who held the rank of Gefreiter at the time.

Schmeling survived the battle and the war. During the previous day, the Germans had cut communications between the two westernmost companies of the battalion and the battalion commander, Lieutenant Colonel Leslie Andrew VC, who was on the eastern side of the airfield.

The lack of communication was assumed to mean that the battalion had been overrun in the west. With the weakened state of the eastern elements of the battalion and believing the western elements to have been overrun, Andrew requested reinforcement by the 23rd Battalion.

After a failed counter-attack late in the day on 20 May, with the eastern elements of his battalion, Andrew withdrew under cover of darkness to regroup, with the consent of Hargest.

The Allies continued to bombard the area as Ju 52s flew in units of the 5th Mountain Division at night. By the time the battalion moved north to relieve 20th Battalion for the counter-attack, it was , and the 20th Battalion took three hours to reach the staging area, with its first elements arriving around Force D under Rear-Admiral Irvine Glennie , with three light cruisers and four destroyers, intercepted the convoy before midnight; the convoy turned back with the loss of more than half of its boats, despite Lupo 's defence.

A total of German soldiers, two Italian seamen [58] and two British sailors on Orion were killed.

Of the German soldiers who landed at Akrotriri, only one managed to get through the British lines and join the German paratroopers already fighting for Chania.

The defending force organised for a night counter-attack on Maleme by two New Zealand battalions, the 20th Battalion of the 4th Brigade and the 28th Maori Battalion of the 5th Brigade.

A New Zealand officer present at the battle claimed a long delay ordering the planned counter-attack turned a night attack into a day attack, which led to its failure.

The delayed counter-attack on the airfield came in daylight on 22 May, when the troops faced Stuka dive bombers, dug-in paratroops and mountain troops.

The attack slowly petered out and failed to retake the airfield, which forced the defenders into withdrawals to the eastern end of the island, to avoid being out-flanked.

The British squadron was under constant air attack and, short of anti-aircraft ammunition, steamed on toward Milos, sighting Sagittario at King made the "difficult" decision not to press the attack, despite his overpowering advantage, because of the shortage of ammunition and the severity of the air attacks.

Eventually, the convoy and its escort managed to slip away undamaged. King's ships, despite their failure to destroy the convoy, had succeeded in forcing the Axis to abort the landing by their mere presence at sea.

During the search and withdrawal from the area, Force C suffered many losses to German bombers. Concerned about the level of anti-aircraft ammunition available following repeated air attacks, the combined force was ordered to report on their stock of high-angle ammunition at At Force A1, stationed 20 to 30 miles west of Antikythera, received a request from King to support the damaged Naiad.

As the more senior admiral, King took command, with air attacks now inflicting damage on both forces. Writing in despatches after the battle, Cunningham stated that King was unaware of the shortage of anti-aircraft ammunition in Gloucester and Fiji.

At King and Rawlings exchanged messages about the shortage of ammunition within both Force C and Force A1, with Rawlings expressing concern about the orders given to Gloucester and Fiji.

Following this communication, King issued an order to recall both Gloucester and Fiji at Between and , while attempting to rejoin Force A1, Gloucester was hit by several bombs and had to be left behind due to the air attacks; [68] the ship was sunk and 22 officers and ratings were killed.

The Royal Navy had lost two cruisers and a destroyer but had managed to force the invasion fleet to turn round.

Kelvin and Jackal were diverted to another search while Mountbatten, with Kelly , Kashmir and Kipling were to go to Alexandria.

While the three ships were rounding the western side of Crete, they were attacked by 24 Ju 87 Stuka dive bombers.

Kashmir was hit and sank in two minutes, Kelly was hit and turned turtle soon after and later sank. Kelly shot down a Stuka immediately and another was badly damaged and crashed upon returning to base.

The Greeks put up determined resistance, but with only rifles and a few thousand rounds of ammunition available for 1, ill-trained men, they were unable to repel the German advance.

Despite the dangers posed by British naval forces, the Kriegsmarine made another attempt to supply the invasion by sea.

Österlin commandeered a small wooden lighter at Piraeus and arranged for the tanks to be lowered onto it.

At dusk the next day, the lighter, towed by the small harbour tug Kentauros , left Piraeus and headed south towards Crete. Reports of British naval units operating nearby convinced Admiral Schuster to delay the operation and he ordered Österlin to make for a small harbour on the German-occupied island of Kithira.

He stressed the "absolute and immediate need" for "reinforcement by sea shipment of heavy weaponry if the operation is to get ahead at all.

Schuster issued Österlin new orders to sail for the Gulf of Kissamos , where a landing beach had already been selected and marked out.

Upon nearing the shore on 28 May, the lighter was positioned ahead of the tug and firmly beached. A party of engineers then blew the lighter's bow off using demolition charges and the two tanks rolled ashore.

They were soon assigned to Advance Detachment Wittman , which had assembled near Prison Valley reservoir the day before. This ad-hoc group was composed of a motorcycle battalion, the Reconnaissance Battalion, an anti-tank unit, a motorised artillery troop, and some engineers.

General Ringel gave orders for Wittmann to "strike out from Platanos at on 28 May in pursuit of the British 'main' via the coastal highway to Rethymno" and thence towards Heraklion.

On 26 May, in the face of the stalled German advance, senior Wehrmacht officers requested Mussolini to send Italian Army units to Crete in order to help the German forces fighting there.

The Italian commander in the Dodecanese had volunteered the services of his men as early as 21 May, but the request had to pass through German channels to Hermann Göring, who finally authorised the move when it became clear that the German effort was not moving ahead as quickly as planned.

At on 28 May, the Italians believed that three cruisers and six destroyers of the Royal Navy were steaming up towards the northern coast of Crete in support of Allied troops, but the Royal Navy was fully occupied evacuating the Crete garrison.

The 3, men of the division and their equipment were on shore by and advanced west mostly unopposed, rendezvousing with the Germans at Ierapetra.

The Italian troops later moved their headquarters from Sitia to Agios Nikolaos. The Germans pushed the British, Commonwealth and Greek forces steadily southward, using aerial and artillery bombardment, followed by waves of motorcycle and mountain troops the rocky terrain making it difficult to employ tanks.

The garrisons at Souda and Beritania gradually fell back along the road to Vitsilokoumos , north of Sfakia. About halfway there, near the village of Askyfou lay a large crater nicknamed "The Saucer", the only place wide and flat enough for a large parachute drop.

Troops were stationed about its perimeter, to prevent a landing that might block the retreat. On the evening of the 27th, a small detachment of German troops penetrated Allied lines near Imbros Gorge threatening a column of retreating unarmed Allied forces.

The attack was held off by four men, the only ones with weapons. Led by Cpl Douglas Bignal, the men sacrificed themselves, securing the withdrawal of the remainder.

The Luftwaffe was over Rethymno and Heraklion and they were able to retreat down the road. Layforce was the only big unit in this area to be cut off.

Layforce had been sent to Crete by way of Sfakia when it was still hoped that reinforcements could be brought from Egypt to turn the tide of the battle.

Layforce and three British tanks were joined by the men of the 20th Heavy Anti-Aircraft Battery, who had been assigned to guard Souda docks and refused to believe that an evacuation had been ordered.

Laycock and his brigade major , Evelyn Waugh , were able to escape in a tank. Most of the other men of the detachment and the 20th HAA Battery were killed or captured.

By the end of the operation about of the commandos sent to Crete were listed as killed, wounded or missing; only men got off the island.

About 18, men of the 32, British troops on the island were evacuated; 12, British and Dominion troops and thousands of Greeks were still on Crete when the island came under German control on 1 June.

Colonel Campbell, the commander at Heraklion, was forced to surrender his contingent. Rethymno fell and on the night of 30 May, German motorcycle troops linked up with the Italian troops who had landed on Sitia.

On 1 June, the remaining 5, defenders at Sfakia surrendered. While scattered and disorganised, these men and the partisans harassed German troops for long after the withdrawal.

Cretan civilians joined the battle with whatever weapons were at hand. In one recorded incident, an elderly Cretan man clubbed a parachutist to death with his walking cane, before the German could disentangle himself from his parachute.

The Cretans also used captured German small arms. The Crete civilian actions against the Germans were not limited to harassment; mobs of armed civilians joined in the Greek counter-attacks at Kastelli Hill and Paleochora; the British and New Zealand advisers at these locations were hard pressed to prevent massacres.

Civilians also checked the Germans to the north and west of Heraklion and in the town centre. As most Cretan partisans wore no uniforms or insignia such as armbands or headbands, the Germans felt free of all of the constraints of the Hague Conventions and killed armed and unarmed civilians indiscriminately.

Between 2 June and 1 August, persons from the village of Alikianos and its vicinity were killed in mass shootings known as the Alikianos executions.

On 3 June, the village of Kandanos was razed to the ground and about of its inhabitants killed. After the war, Student, who ordered the shootings, avoided prosecution for war crimes , despite Greek efforts to have him extradited.

The first resistance movement in Crete was established just two weeks after its capture. Throughout the German occupation in the years that followed, reprisals in retaliation for the involvement of the local population in the Cretan resistance continued.

On several occasions, villagers were rounded up and summarily executed. In one of the worst incidents, around 20 villages east of Viannos and west of the Ierapetra provinces were looted and burnt in September , with more than of their inhabitants being massacred.

In August , more than houses in Anogeia were looted and then dynamited. During the same month, nine villages in the Amari valley were destroyed and people killed in what is now known as the Holocaust of Kedros.

After the war, Müller was tried by a Greek military court and executed. The German Air Ministry was shocked by the number of transport aircraft lost in the battle, and Student, reflecting on the casualties suffered by the paratroopers, concluded after the war that Crete was the death of the airborne force.

Hitler, believing airborne forces to be a weapon of surprise which had now lost that advantage, concluded that the days of the airborne corps were over and directed that paratroopers should be employed as ground-based troops in subsequent operations in the Soviet Union.

The battle for Crete did not delay Operation Barbarossa. The delay of Operation Barbarossa was caused by the late spring and floods in Poland.

The sinking of the German battleship Bismarck on 27 May distracted British public opinion but the loss of Crete, particularly as a result of the failure of the Allied land forces to recognise the strategic importance of the airfields, led the British government to make changes.

Shocked and disappointed with the Army's inexplicable failure to recognise the importance of airfields in modern warfare, Churchill made the RAF responsible for the defence of its bases and the RAF Regiment was formed on 1 February Operation Barbarossa made it apparent that the occupation of Crete was a defensive measure to secure the Axis southern flank.

For a fortnight, Enigma intercepts described the arrival of Fliegerkorps XI around Athens, the collection of 27, registered tons of shipping and the effect of air attacks on Crete, which began on 14 May A postponement of the invasion was revealed on 15 May, and on 19 May, the probable date was given as the next day.

The German objectives in Crete were similar to the areas already being prepared by the British, but foreknowledge increased the confidence of the local commanders in their dispositions.

On 14 May, London warned that the attack could come any time after 17 May, which information Freyberg passed on to the garrison. On 16 May the British authorities expected an attack by 25, to 30, airborne troops in aircraft and by 10, troops transported by sea.

The real figures were 15, airborne troops in aircraft and 7, by sea; late decrypts reduced uncertainty over the seaborne invasion.

The British mistakes were smaller than those of the Germans, who estimated the garrison to be only a third of the true figure.

The after-action report of Fliegerkorps XI contained a passage recounting that the operational area had been so well prepared that it gave the impression that the garrison had known the time of the invasion.

Dated 24 May and headed "According to most reliable source" it said where German troops were on the previous day which could have been from reconnaissance but also specified that the Germans were next going to "attack Suda Bay".

This could have indicated that Enigma messages were compromised. Antony Beevor in and P. Antill in wrote that Allied commanders knew of the invasion through Ultra intercepts.

Freyberg, informed of the air component of the German battle plan, had started to prepare a defence near the airfields and along the north coast.

He had been hampered by a lack of modern equipment, and the lightly-armed paratroopers had about the same firepower as the defenders, if not more.

Ultra intelligence was detailed but was taken out of context and misinterpreted. Hinsley , the official historian of British intelligence during the war, wrote that the Germans had more casualties in the conquest of Crete than in the rest of the Greek campaign and that the losses inflicted on the 7th Fliegerdivision were huge [ vague ].

It was the only unit of its kind and was not rebuilt. Hinsley wrote that it was difficult to measure the influence of intelligence gained during the battle, because although Ultra revealed German situation reports, reinforcement details and unit identifications and although more intelligence was gleaned from prisoners and captured documents, it was not known how swiftly the information reached Freyberg or how he used it.

The German parachute warfare manual had been captured in , and after the war, Student said that he would have changed tactics had he known this.

Field-signals intelligence was obtained, including bombing instructions and information from the Fliegerkorps XI tactical code.

Lack of air cover prevented much British air reconnaissance north of Crete, but on 21 May signals intelligence enabled an aircraft to spot a convoy.

After midnight the navy sank twelve ships and the rest scattered, which led to a second invasion convoy being called back. The second convoy was intercepted during the morning of 22 May, despite the cost to the navy of a daylight operation, and no more seaborne attempts were made.

Official German casualty figures are contradictory due to minor variations in documents produced by German commands on various dates.

Davin estimated 6, losses, based upon an examination of various sources. Reports of German casualties in British reports are in almost all cases exaggerated and are not accepted against the official contemporary German returns, prepared for normal purposes and not for propaganda.

In , Playfair and the other British official historians, gave figures of 1, Germans killed, 2, wounded, 1, missing, a total of 6, men "compiled from what appear to be the most reliable German records".

Exaggerated reports of German casualties began to appear after the battle had ended. Churchill claimed that the Germans must have suffered well over 15, casualties.

Buckley, based on British intelligence assumptions of two enemies wounded for every one killed, gave an estimate of 16, casualties.

The official historians recorded Luftwaffe aircraft destroyed and 64 damaged beyond repair by enemy action, with 73 destroyed due to extensive non-combat damage, for a total of aircraft.

Another 84 planes had repairable non-combat damage. In , Shores, Cull, and Malizia recorded losses of aircraft destroyed and 64 written off due to damage, a total of aircraft between 13 May and 1 June: in combat, 73 non-combat, 64 written-off, and damaged but repairable.

The British lost 1, killed, 1, wounded, and 11, taken prisoner from a garrison of slightly more than 32, men; and there were 1, dead and wounded Royal Navy personnel.

A large number of civilians were killed in the crossfire or died fighting as partisans. Many Cretan civilians were shot by the Germans in reprisal during the battle and in the occupation.

German records put the number of Cretans executed by firing squad as 3, and at least 1, civilians were killed in massacres late in Royal Navy shipborne anti-aircraft gun claims for the period of 15—27 May amounted to: "Twenty enemy aircraft At least 15 aircraft appeared to have been damaged For the German occupation of Crete, see Fortress Crete.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Battle of the Mediterranean. Balkans campaign. Greek Campaign. Main article: Battle of Greece.

Main article: Battle of Crete order of battle. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Main article: Battle of Maleme. Main article: Battle of Rethymno. The British feared a propaganda coup if a sovereign monarch under their protection were to be captured and helped him to escape.

Davin Victoria University of Wellington. Retrieved 22 November Archived from the original PDF on 17 July Retrieved 27 May Naval History.

The Dupuy Institute. Retrieved 19 November Bloomsbury Publishing. The first convincing demonstration of this potential in operational conditions came in May , when the entire plan for the German airborne capture of Crete was decrypted two weeks before the invasion took place.

Funktionale Cookies immer aktiv. Es wird nicht für Tracking oder Benutzeridentifikation verwendet. Gültig bis Sitzungsende. Es ist Tage gültig.

Es ist 12 Monate gültig. Gültig für 1 Jahr. ID Eingeloggte Benutzer werden mit diesem Cookie identifiziert. Das Cookie wird nicht für Tracking eingesetzt.

Das Cookie wird nicht für Tracking oder Benutzeridentifikation eingesetzt. Tracking aktiv inaktiv. Gültig für 6 Monate.

Gültig für max.

Besungen wurde ihr mythisierter Ruhm in dem "Lied der Fallschirmjäger" oder in dem nach der Operation "Merkur" eigens komponierten Lied "Auf Kreta im. Nur gestreift wird in dem Buch das Thema Judenvernichtung, vielleicht, weil die jüdische Gemeinde (von Chania) mit ihren Seelen nur klein und. Eroberung der Insel durch deutsche Fallschirmtruppen im Mai , Deckname: "Unternehmen Merkur". Auch der vom Militärgeschichtlichen. Unternehmen Merkur Combat 1 a Leggi argomento - Unternehmen Merkur Abzeichen, Waffen,. Gemerkt von hitthenorth.nl Oct 21, - Griechenlandfeldzug / Eroberung Kreta Unternehmen Merkur: Deutsche Fallschirmjäger sammeln sich in einem Dorf. Mai

Geschütz ursprünglich die Waffe des Schützen, also Bogen; historisch Stück oder Büchse bezeichnet im Militärwesen eine schwere, nicht zum Handgebrauch verwendbare Rohrwaffe.

Das Gras Modell frz. Oktober als völkerrechtswidriger Angriffskrieg des faschistischen Königreichs Italien gegen das Königreich Griechenland.

Heinz A. Oktober in Nürnberg war ein führender deutscher nationalsozialistischer Politiker. Juli in Kappeln war ein wegen Kriegsverbrechen verurteilter deutscher Offizier, zuletzt General der Fallschirmtruppe der Wehrmacht.

Die HMS Warspite dt. Trebes ganz links kurz vor dem Massaker von Kondomari, 2. Juni Fallschirmjäger ermorden griechische Zivilisten, Kondomari, 2.

Iraklio in seitens der Stadt selbst verwendeter Schreibung Heraklion,, im Mittelalter Chandakas, in der Zeit der venezianischen Herrschaft Candia, danach, griech.

März war ein polnischer Historiker, Schriftsteller sowie Regisseur und Produzent. Das Königreich Griechenland bestand von bis und von bis Das Königreich Italien war ein Staat in Südeuropa, welcher von bis auf dem Gebiet der heutigen Italienischen Republik und Teilen derer Nachbarstaaten bestand.

Korinth ist eine griechische Stadt mit über Kradschützentruppe in Russland Hauptsächlich waren die Kradschützen mit BMW oder Zündapp-Motorrädern ausgerüstet Kradschützen waren motorisierte, leicht bewaffnete und hochbewegliche Infanterieverbände des Heeres der deutschen Wehrmacht und der Waffen-SS, die üblicherweise in die Schnellen Truppen eingegliedert waren.

Kriegsmarine war die offizielle Bezeichnung der Seestreitkräfte der deutschen Wehrmacht, nachdem die Reichsmarine des Deutschen Reiches am 1.

Als Luftüberlegenheit wird der Grad an militärischer Kontrolle über den Luftraum über einem definierten Gebiet und eines bestimmten Zeitraums bezeichnet, der eigene Operationen ohne wesentliche Einwirkungsmöglichkeit eines Gegners ermöglicht.

Die Luftwaffe der Wehrmacht war neben dem Heer und der Kriegsmarine eine der drei Teilstreitkräfte im nationalsozialistischen Deutschen Reich von bis Februar in Wenzendorf, Samtgemeinde Hollenstedt war ein deutscher Schwergewichtsboxer und zwischen und Schwergewichts-Boxweltmeister.

Minenjäger Minenabwehrfahrzeuge sind Kriegsschiffe, deren Hauptaufgabe die Beseitigung von Seeminen ist. Motorsegler, auch Motorsegelschiffe, sind Schiffe und Sportboote, die sowohl mit Segeln als auch mit Motor angetrieben werden.

Der Nahe Osten ist eine geographische Bezeichnung, die heute im Allgemeinen für arabische Staaten Vorderasiens und Israel benutzt wird.

Officers and Gentlemen ist ein Roman des englischen Schriftstellers Evelyn Waugh, der veröffentlicht wurde. Operation Husky war die Codebezeichnung für die alliierte Invasion Siziliens ab dem Die 80 ''Little Black Classics'', die im Jahr zum Die Pistole ist eine Schusswaffe und gehört zur Kategorie der Handfeuerwaffen.

Plowdiw gebräuchliche Transliteration Plovdiv ist mit März war ein Offizier der British Army, der während des Zweiten Weltkriegs für seinen Dienst in britischen Kommandoeinheiten berühmt wurde.

Juni in München war ein General der Gebirgstruppe der Wehrmacht. Der griechische König und der britische Gesandte wurden einige Tage zuvor unter erheblichem Risiko evakuiert.

Juni gegen Uhr eingestellt. Es gelang der Royal Navy , fast General Wavell ermächtigte die über auf Kreta verbliebenen Soldaten zur Kapitulation.

Etwa Commonwealth-Soldaten zogen sich jedoch statt dessen in die umliegenden Berge zurück, nachdem auch der letzte Hafen Chora Sfakion von deutschen Truppen eingenommen worden war.

Teile der Landbevölkerung leisteten ihnen und den griechischen Soldaten Beistand. Im Falle der Entdeckung drohte ihnen durch die deutsche Besatzungsmacht drakonische Strafen.

Da die schweren Waffen fast vollständig zerstört oder bereits aufgegeben waren, wurde die noch vorhandene Munition an Partisanen verteilt.

Während der Kämpfe hatten sich Teile der Bevölkerung Kretas bewaffnet und leisteten Widerstand gegen die deutschen Invasoren. Der Widerstand gegen die militärische Besetzung war entgegen den deutschen Voraussagen sehr hoch.

Mai folgenden Befehl [25] :. Unmittelbar nach der Beendigung der Kampfhandlungen auf Kreta wurden am 2. Noch während der Kämpfe erging, wie ihr Kommandeur Major Ringel am 4.

Juni berichtete, an die 5. Wegen des Widerstandes der Bevölkerung während der Invasion wurden zwei Sonderunternehmen durchgeführt. In Zusammenarbeit mit dem Reichssicherheitshauptamt , das die Fahndungslisten und die standgerichtlichen Urteile erstellte, wurden eine Anzahl von Personen gefangengenommen.

Beim Sonderunternehmen Völkerbund , das von der 5. Unter anderem wegen des Widerstandes der Bevölkerung wurden in der Folge bis zu Bei der Durchführung dieser militärischen Unternehmung zeigte sich grundsätzlich die deutsche Lufthoheit der britischen Seeherrschaft als überlegen.

Letztlich war es nur dieser Luftüberlegenheit zu verdanken, dass nach dem dritten Angriffstag deutsche Verstärkungen auf dem Seewege nach Kreta überführt und die britische Flotte die Landungsoperation nicht nennenswert behindern konnte.

Die Besetzung Kretas durch die Achsenmächte sicherte deren Südostflanke angesichts des bevorstehenden Überfalls auf die Sowjetunion.

Dennoch hatte die Besetzung Kretas durch deutsche und italienische Truppen keinerlei strategische Auswirkungen auf die weitere Kriegsführung auf diesen Kriegsschauplatz, obwohl die Insel bis zur Kapitulation am 8.

Mai in deutscher Hand blieb. Gleichzeitig war dies ein Anzeichen für das generelle Fehlen einer deutschen Gesamtkriegskonzeption. So blieben die Befürchtungen der Alliierten, dass das Deutsche Reich nach dem Balkanfeldzug eine Entscheidung im Mittelmeerraum und in Afrika anstreben würde, grundlos.

Die deutsche Wehrmacht verfügte lediglich über eine Luftlandedivision, nämlich die 7. Praktisch wurde die Division auf Kreta vernichtet und in der Folge nicht mehr geschlossen eingesetzt.

Die Reste der 7. Die Ursachen dafür lagen in Führungsfehlern, vorhandenen Mängeln in der Bodenorganisation und zu knapp bemessener Vorbereitungszeit.

Die Hauptgründe waren jedoch die völlige Unterschätzung des Gegners, die Annahme, dass die Bevölkerung die deutschen Truppen freundlich empfangen würde, sowie das fehlende Überraschungsmoment, da die Engländer in fast allen Einzelheiten über den bevorstehenden Angriff informiert waren.

In dem Schlachtbericht des XI. Alle Befestigungen waren sehr geschickt getarnt Die Westalliierten waren von der Schlagkraft der deutschen Fallschirmjäger beeindruckt.

Winston Churchill befahl darauf den Aufbau von britischen Luftlandeeinheiten. So wurden drei Kreuzer und sechs Zerstörer versenkt sowie sechs Kreuzer, fünf Zerstörer, drei Schlachtschiffe und der einzige Flugzeugträger zum Teil stark beschädigt.

Dabei fanden über britische Seeleute den Tod. Insgesamt gerieten etwa britische und Empiresoldaten in deutsche Kriegsgefangenschaft, wobei später durch Kommando-Unternehmen einigen Hundert zur Flucht verholfen wurde.

Die Deutschen hatten nach offiziellen Angaben Verluste von Soldaten zu beklagen, darunter Gefallene und Verwundete. Nach dem Krieg zählte eine australische Kriegsgräberkommission bei Maleme und Soudabucht über deutsche Soldatengräber und weitere tausend bei Rethymno und Iraklio [32].

Alle auf Kreta geborgenen deutschen Gefallenen wurden in den neugestalteten Deutschen Soldatenfriedhof Maleme umgebettet. Prominentester Verwundeter war die Boxlegende Max Schmeling , der sich am Mai bei der Landung eine Verletzung zu zog.

Von den durch die Luftwaffe eingesetzten Ju 52 wurden abgeschossen oder waren so schwer beschädigt, dass sie nicht mehr einsetzbar waren.

Wikimedia Foundation. We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this. Deutsch Wikipedia.

Deutsches Reich , Italien. Vereinigtes Königreich , Australien , Neuseeland , Griechenland. Alexander Löhr und Wolfram von Richthofen Kurt Student , kommandierender General des XI.

Deutsche Gebirgsjäger im Transportflugzeug. Fallschirmjäger springen über Kreta ab Ju Ein deutscher Lastensegler nach einer Bruchlandung.

Toter Fallschirmjäger. Ju 52 nach Bruchlandung. Fallschirmjäger erklimmen einen Hügel. Brennendes britisches Fahrzeug nach einem Luftangriff.

Verwundete britische Truppen gehen nach der Evakuierung im ägyptischen Alexandria von Bord. Gefangennahme britischer Soldaten. Deutsche , italienische und bulgarische Besatzungszonen in Griechenland und auf Kreta.

Denkmal der Schlacht um Kreta am Athener Kriegsmuseum. Mark and share Search through all dictionaries Translate… Search Internet.

Teil von: Zweiter Weltkrieg. Die deutsche Luftlandung auf Kreta. Datum Mai —1. Juni Generalleutnant Kurt Student. Exaggerated reports of German casualties began to appear after the battle had ended.

Churchill claimed that the Germans must have suffered well over 15, casualties. Buckley, based on British intelligence assumptions of two enemies wounded for every one killed, gave an estimate of 16, casualties.

The official historians recorded Luftwaffe aircraft destroyed and 64 damaged beyond repair by enemy action, with 73 destroyed due to extensive non-combat damage, for a total of aircraft.

Another 84 planes had repairable non-combat damage. In , Shores, Cull, and Malizia recorded losses of aircraft destroyed and 64 written off due to damage, a total of aircraft between 13 May and 1 June: in combat, 73 non-combat, 64 written-off, and damaged but repairable.

The British lost 1, killed, 1, wounded, and 11, taken prisoner from a garrison of slightly more than 32, men; and there were 1, dead and wounded Royal Navy personnel.

A large number of civilians were killed in the crossfire or died fighting as partisans. Many Cretan civilians were shot by the Germans in reprisal during the battle and in the occupation.

German records put the number of Cretans executed by firing squad as 3, and at least 1, civilians were killed in massacres late in Royal Navy shipborne anti-aircraft gun claims for the period of 15—27 May amounted to: "Twenty enemy aircraft At least 15 aircraft appeared to have been damaged For the German occupation of Crete, see Fortress Crete.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Battle of the Mediterranean. Balkans campaign. Greek Campaign.

Main article: Battle of Greece. Main article: Battle of Crete order of battle. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.

Main article: Battle of Maleme. Main article: Battle of Rethymno. The British feared a propaganda coup if a sovereign monarch under their protection were to be captured and helped him to escape.

Davin Victoria University of Wellington. Retrieved 22 November Archived from the original PDF on 17 July Retrieved 27 May Naval History.

The Dupuy Institute. Retrieved 19 November Bloomsbury Publishing. The first convincing demonstration of this potential in operational conditions came in May , when the entire plan for the German airborne capture of Crete was decrypted two weeks before the invasion took place.

Crete: The Battle and the Resistance. London: Penguin. The Monthly. New Zealand History online. Retrieved 24 November Putnam's Sons, New York. Page The Hunters and the Hunted.

Naval Institute Press, pp. University of the West of England. Archived from the original on 1 April Retrieved 21 May The Great Crusade: a new complete history of the second world war Revised ed.

Ministry of Defence. Archived from the original on 6 April Retrieved 29 May Enigma: The Battle for the Code. In Handel, Michael ed. Intelligence and Military Operations.

Studies in Intelligence. Abingdon, Oxfordshire: Routledge. Retrieved 23 July It appears that General Freyberg was introduced to Ultra only shortly before the battle of Crete began and therefore had no time to become familiar with its proper interpretation.

This situation was exacerbated by the fact that 'he was forbidden to show it the information derived from Ultra to anyone or to discuss it with his intelligence staff.

This number includes those missing in action. The total number excludes several hundred RN PoWs. Thomas Retrieved 20 December Battle Summary.

BR 2 rev. London: Admiralty Historical Section. CS1 maint: others link Ansel, Walter Hitler and the Middle Sea.

Duke University Press. Crete Germany's lightning airborne assault. Campaign series. Oxford; New York: Osprey Publishing.

London: John Murray. Whitehall Histories. London: Whitehall History in association with Frank Cass.

Greece and Crete Second World War, —; a popular military history. London: HMSO. Chappell, Mike Army Commandos — London: Osprey.

Winston S. Churchill: Finest hour, — Houghton Mifflin. The London Gazette Supplement. Davin, Daniel Marcus Retrieved 4 November Amazon to Ivanhoe: British Standard Destroyers of the s.

Kendal, England: World Ship Society. Australia in the War of — 2. Greene, Jack; Massignani, Alessandro The Naval War in the Mediterranean — London: Chatham Publishing.

Lexington, Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky. UNSW Press. Hinsley, F. British Intelligence in the Second World War. Its influence on Strategy and Operations.

History of the Second World War. No ISBN. London: Admiralty: Director of Naval Construction. Archived from the original PDF on 10 June CS1 maint: others link Kavanaugh, Stephen Nimble Books.

The Second World War. Random House. The Nazi Occupation of Crete: — Santa Babara, CA: Praeger. Long, Gavin Greece, Crete and Syria. Australia in the War of — Series One — Army.

II 1st ed. Canberra: Australian War Memorial. The Lost Battle — Crete Durham, UK: G. Pack, S. The Battle for Crete. HMSO ]. Butler, J. Richards, Denis [].

I paperback online ed. Roskill, S. War at Sea. I 4th impr. London: Grub Street. Battle for Crete. London: Heinemann.

London: Oxford University Press. The Home Front. The German Campaigns in the Balkans Spring Dept of the Army Pamphlet. Washington, DC: Dept. Richmond, Surrey: Air Ministry.

CS1 maint: others link Vick, Alan Rand Corporation. Cruisers of World War II. London: Brockhampton Press. Badsey, Stephen Barber, Laurie; Tonkin-Covell, John Freyberg: Churchill's Salamander.

London: Hutchinson. Beevor, Antony London: Penguin Books. Brown, David Churchill, Winston Spencer New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Clark, Alan []. The Fall of Crete. London: Anthony Blond. Cody, J. Wellington: Historical Publications Branch.

Retrieved 5 November Comeau, M. Operation Mercury: Airmen in the Battle of Crete. Elliot, Murray []. Vasili: The Lion of Crete.

London, Australia, South Africa Greek pbk. Efstathiadis Group ed. New Zealand: Century Hutchinson. Ewer, Peter Forgotten Anzacs: The Campaign in Greece, Carlton North, Vic.

Fliegerkorps 7. Bereits am 1. Der Widerstandswille der kretischen Bevölkerung kam für die deutsche Führung Casino Krefeld überraschend, hatte sich doch die Bevölkerung auf dem griechischen Festland während des deutschen Vormarsches Beste Spielothek in Bennin finden aller Regel passiv verhalten. Sie zeichnet sich durch emotionslose Sachlichkeit aus, doch sprechen, bei aller Distanz der Darstellung, die Fakten über in Deutschland Beste Spielothek in GГ¶sseldorf finden verschwiegene Besatzungsgreuel der Wehrmacht für sich. Gebirgs-Division und Kradschützen der 5. Wegen des Widerstandes der Bevölkerung wurden in der Folge circa Wavell ging davon aus, dass allein das Wissen über den Angriffsplan genügen würde, um den Angriff abzuwehren, und eine Zerstörung der Flugfelder nur eine schnelle Deutsche Pornoproduzenten der Insel mit eigenen Flugzeugen verhindert hätte. Unternehmen Merkur Gleichzeitig war dies ein Anzeichen für das generelle Fehlen einer deutschen Gesamtkriegskonzeption. Da die schweren Waffen fast vollständig zerstört oder bereits aufgegeben waren, wurde die noch vorhandene Munition an Partisanen verteilt. Es mangelte an schweren Waffen, nur Beste Spielothek in Kottweiler-Schwanden finden Artillerie-Geschütze konnten aus eroberten italienischen Beständen aufgeboten werden. Retrieved 20 December Gleichzeitig war dies ein Anzeichen für das generelle Fehlen einer deutschen Gesamtkriegskonzeption. Diese Flugzeuge wurden Spielsucht Was Nun Tag vor dem deutschen Angriff nach Ägypten verlegt, um sie der Vernichtung zu entziehen Flauschige Tiere für andere Einsätze zu erhalten.

Unternehmen Merkur - „Unternehmen Merkur“ – deutscher Angriff auf Kreta

Die Westalliierten waren von der Schlagkraft der deutschen Fallschirmjäger beeindruckt. Im Falle der Entdeckung drohten ihnen durch die deutsche Besatzungsmacht drakonische Strafen. Doch das war nicht der einzige Mangel: Es fehlte auch jeder Hinweis auf die schlimmen Folgen des "Unternehmens Merkur" für die kretische Zivilbevölkerung.

Unternehmen Merkur Video

P:E Operation \ Unternehmen Merkur Bereits am 1. Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. In Zusammenarbeit mit dem Reichssicherheitshauptamtdas die Fahndungslisten und die standgerichtlichen Urteile erstellte, wurden Personen gefangen genommen. Bei Sonnenuntergang des ersten Tages waren von den ursprünglich In der Nacht zum Diesen zufolge würde eine militärische Aktion der Italiener gegen Nordgriechenland und den Hafen von Piräus mit Sicherheit zu einer Inbesitznahme der Insel Kreta durch die Briten führen. ID Eingeloggte Benutzer werden mit diesem Cookie identifiziert. Juni gegen 3 Euro Pro Trader Erfahrungen eingestellt. Gelandeter Luftlandesegler auf Kreta, So wurden einige Panzer in befestigte Stellungen eingebaut. Es wird nicht für Tracking oder Benutzeridentifikation verwendet. Bei der ganzen Sachlage ist dies Sache der Truppe und nicht von ordentlichen Gerichten. So ist sie geeignet, ein für allemal den heute noch am Stammtisch wie im Landserheft gepflegten Mythos des "Unternehmens Bitstamp Anleitung zu zerstören. Ok Merkur Group Über das Unternehmen. Zu Beginn des Jahres standen nur Vaderdag 2020 etwa griechische Soldaten auf der Insel. Fliegerkorps keine Kenntnis darüber, dass der Angriff Beste Spielothek in DemantsfГјrth finden den Flugplatz Maleme vorerst gescheitert war, Wilhelm Süssmannder Kommandeur der 7. Fliegerkorps I.

0 Replies to “Unternehmen Merkur”

Hinterlasse eine Antwort