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Inhalt 1 noticias do vasco atualizadas 2 Campeonato Sudamericano de Campeones 3 Rio de Janeiro 4 netvasco noticias do vasco 5 netvasco com br 6 vasco da gama globo esporte.

As a result, John III decided to appoint Vasco da Gama himself to replace Menezes, confident that the magic of his name and memory of his deeds might better impress his authority on Portuguese India, and manage the transition to a new government and new strategy.

By his appointment letter of February , John III granted Vasco da Gama the privileged title of " Viceroy ", being only the second Portuguese governor to enjoy that title the first was Francisco de Almeida in After a troubled journey [ clarification needed ] four or five of the ships were lost en route , he arrived in India in September.

Vasco da Gama immediately invoked his high viceregent powers to impose a new order in Portuguese India, replacing all the old officials with his own appointments.

But Gama contracted malaria not long after arriving, and died in the city of Cochin on Christmas Eve in , three months after his arrival.

As per royal instructions, da Gama was succeeded as governor of India by one the captains who had come with him, Henrique de Menezes no relation to Duarte.

Vasco da Gama's body was first buried at St. Francis Church , which was located at Fort Kochi in the city of Kochi , but his remains were returned to Portugal in The body of Vasco da Gama was re-interred in Vidigueira in a casket decorated with gold and jewels.

His male line issue became extinct in , though the title went through female line. Over his numerous years serving the Portuguese crown, da Gama was rewarded with many different titles, distinctions, and offices:.

Vasco da Gama is one of the most famous and celebrated explorers from the Age of Discovery. As much as anyone after Henry the Navigator , he was responsible for Portugal's success as an early colonising power.

Beside the fact of the first voyage itself, it was his astute mix of politics and war on the other side of the world that placed Portugal in a prominent position in Indian Ocean trade.

Following da Gama's initial voyage, the Portuguese crown realized that securing outposts on the eastern coast of Africa would prove vital to maintaining national trade routes to the Far East.

However, his fame is tempered by such incidents and attitudes as displayed in the notorious Pilgrim Ship Incident previously discussed.

The events depicted, however, are fictitious. Meyerbeer's working title for the opera was Vasco da Gama. The suburb of Vasco in Cape Town also honours him.

Vasco da Gama was the only explorer on the final pool of Os Grandes Portugueses. Although the final shortlist featured other Age of Discovery related people, they were not actually explorers nor navigators for any matter.

The Portuguese Navy has a class of frigates named after him. There are three Vasco da Gama class frigates in total, of which the first one also bears his name.

South African musician Hugh Masekela recorded an anti-colonialist song entitled "Colonial Man", which contains the lyrics "Vasco da Gama was no friend of mine", and another song entitled "Vasco da Gama The Sailor Man ".

Both songs were included in his album Colonial Man. Vasco da Gama appears as an antagonist in the Indian film Urumi.

The film, directed by Santosh Sivan, depicts a failed assassination attempt on da Gama by an Indian. In March , archaeologists working off the coast of Oman identified a shipwreck believed to be that of the Esmeralda from da Gama's — fleet.

The wreck was initially discovered in Later underwater excavations took place between and through a partnership between the Oman Ministry of Heritage and Culture and Blue Water Recoveries Ltd.

Vasco da Gama. For other uses, see Vasco da Gama disambiguation. This section needs additional citations for verification.

Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: 4th Portuguese India Armada Gama, July Learn how and when to remove this template message.

Longman Pronunciation Dictionary 3rd ed. Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary 18th ed. Cambridge University Press. Winius, Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, — , p.

Retrieved 10 December The Globe Encompassed. History of Portugal. Foundations of the Portuguese Empire, — Europe and the World in the Age of Expansion.

Pathfinders: A Global History of Exploration. Vasco da Gama: Renaissance Crusader. II, London, Narayanan , Calicut: The City of Truth Calicut University Publications The incident is mentioned by Camoes in The Lusiads , wherein it is stated that the Zamorin "showed no signs of treachery" and that "on the other hand, da Gama's conduct in carrying off the five men he had entrapped on board his ships is indefensible.

I, Lib. IV, c. But Subrahmanyan , p. The Almeidas provided a substantial part of Catarina's dowry Subrahmanyan, , p.

Archived from the original on 18 January Retrieved 29 July Retrieved 8 July A Survey of Kerala History , p.

Books Kottayam. Sreedhara Menon. A Survey of Kerala History , D. IV, Lib. Da Gama tõi Calcutta kuningale kingitusi, kuid need jätsid kuninga külmaks.

Kuninga kaasvalitsejad mõtlesid, miks ei toonud da Gama kulda ega hõbedat, ning arvasid, et da Gama on vaid tühine piraat. Vasco da Gama oli selle tõttu ärritunud ning võttis Indiast kaasa endaga India kalamehi, vürtse jm.

Da Gama pidas ekspeditsiooni hästi kordaläinuks, sest saadud kaup oli kuus korda väärtuslikum kui raha, mis läks ekspeditsiooni kuludeks.

Da Gama lahkus Indiast Suure kojusõitmissoovi tõttu ignoreeris ta kohalikku teadmist mussoonide kohta, mis tekitasid merel torme.

India ookeanist jõuti alles välja 3.

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John II set a new objective for his captains: to find a sea route to Asia by sailing around the African continent. By the time Vasco da Gama was in his 20s, the king's plans were coming to fruition.

The breakthrough came soon after, when John II's captain Bartolomeu Dias returned from rounding the Cape of Good Hope in , having explored as far as the Fish River Rio do Infante in modern-day South Africa and having verified that the unknown coast stretched away to the northeast.

On 8 July Vasco da Gama led a fleet of four ships with a crew of men from Lisbon. The distance traveled in the journey around Africa to India and back was greater than around the equator.

It is not known for certain how many people were in each ship's crew but approximately 55 returned, and two ships were lost.

Two of the vessels were carracks , newly built for the voyage; the others were a caravel and a supply boat.

The expedition set sail from Lisbon on 8 July It followed the route pioneered by earlier explorers along the coast of Africa via Tenerife and the Cape Verde Islands.

After reaching the coast of present-day Sierra Leone , da Gama took a course south into the open ocean, crossing the Equator and seeking the South Atlantic westerlies that Bartolomeu Dias had discovered in With Christmas pending, da Gama and his crew gave the coast they were passing the name Natal , which carried the connotation of "birth of Christ" in Portuguese.

Vasco da Gama spent 2 to 29 March in the vicinity of Mozambique Island. Arab -controlled territory on the East African coast was an integral part of the network of trade in the Indian Ocean.

Fearing the local population would be hostile to Christians, da Gama impersonated a Muslim and gained audience with the Sultan of Mozambique.

With the paltry trade goods he had to offer, the explorer was unable to provide a suitable gift to the ruler. Soon the local populace became suspicious of da Gama and his men.

Forced by a hostile crowd to flee Mozambique, da Gama departed the harbor, firing his cannons into the city in retaliation.

In the vicinity of modern Kenya , the expedition resorted to piracy , looting Arab merchant ships that were generally unarmed trading vessels without heavy cannons.

The Portuguese became the first known Europeans to visit the port of Mombasa from 7 to 13 April , but were met with hostility and soon departed.

Vasco da Gama continued north, arriving on 14 April at the friendlier port of Malindi , whose leaders were having a conflict with those of Mombasa.

There the expedition first noted evidence of Indian traders. Da Gama and his crew contracted the services of a pilot who used his knowledge of the monsoon winds to guide the expedition the rest of the way to Calicut , located on the southwest coast of India.

Sources differ over the identity of the pilot, calling him variously a Christian, a Muslim, and a Gujarati. One traditional story describes the pilot as the famous Arab navigator Ibn Majid , but other contemporaneous accounts place Majid elsewhere, and he could not have been near the vicinity at the time.

Vasco da Gama left Malindi for India on 24 April The King of Calicut, the Samudiri Zamorin , who was at that time staying in his second capital at Ponnani , returned to Calicut on hearing the news of the foreign fleet's arrival.

The navigator was received with traditional hospitality, including a grand procession of at least 3, armed Nairs , but an interview with the Zamorin failed to produce any concrete results.

When local authorities asked da Gama's fleet, "What brought you hither? While Zamorin's officials wondered at why there was no gold or silver, the Muslim merchants who considered da Gama their rival suggested that the latter was only an ordinary pirate and not a royal ambassador.

Annoyed by this, da Gama carried a few Nairs and sixteen fishermen mukkuva off with him by force. Vasco da Gama left Calicut on 29 August Eager to set sail for home, he ignored the local knowledge of monsoon wind patterns that were still blowing onshore.

The fleet initially inched north along the Indian coast, and then anchored in at Anjediva island for a spell. They finally struck out for their Indian Ocean crossing on 3 October But with the winter monsoon yet to set in, it was a harrowing journey.

On the outgoing journey, sailing with the summer monsoon wind, da Gama's fleet crossed the Indian Ocean in only 23 days; now, on the return trip, sailing against the wind, it took days.

Da Gama saw land again only on 2 January , passing before the coastal Somali city of Mogadishu , then under the influence of the Ajuran Empire in the Horn of Africa.

The fleet did not make a stop, but passing before Mogadishu, the anonymous diarist of the expedition noted that it was a large city with houses of four or five storeys high and big palaces in its center and many mosques with cylindrical minarets.

Da Gama's fleet finally arrived in Malindi on 7 January , in a terrible state — approximately half of the crew had died during the crossing, and many of the rest were afflicted with scurvy.

Thereafter, the sailing was smoother. The diary record of the expedition ends abruptly here. Da Gama and his sickly brother eventually hitched a ride with a Guinea caravel returning to Portugal, but Paulo da Gama died en route.

He eventually took passage on an Azorean caravel and finally arrived in Lisbon on 29 August according to Barros , [28] or early September 8th or 18th, according to other sources.

Despite his melancholic mood, da Gama was given a hero's welcome and showered with honors, including a triumphal procession and public festivities.

King Manuel wrote two letters in which he described da Gama's first voyage, in July and August , soon after the return of the ships.

Girolamo Sernigi also wrote three letters describing da Gama's first voyage soon after the return of the expedition. The expedition had exacted a large cost — two ships and over half the men had been lost.

It had also failed in its principal mission of securing a commercial treaty with Calicut. Nonetheless, the small quantities of spices and other trade goods brought back on the remaining two ships demonstrated the potential of great profit for future trade.

His path would be followed up thereafter by yearly Portuguese India Armadas. The spice trade would prove to be a major asset to the Portuguese royal treasury, and other consequences soon followed.

For example, da Gama's voyage had made it clear that the east coast of Africa, the Contra Costa , was essential to Portuguese interests; its ports provided fresh water, provisions, timber, and harbors for repairs, and served as a refuge where ships could wait out unfavorable weather.

One significant result was the colonization of Mozambique by the Portuguese Crown. This turned out to be a complicated affair, for Sines still belonged to the Order of Santiago.

The master of the Order, Jorge de Lencastre , might have endorsed the reward — after all, da Gama was a Santiago knight, one of their own, and a close associate of Lencastre himself.

But the fact that Sines was awarded by the king provoked Lencastre to refuse out of principle, lest it encourage the king to make other donations of the Order's properties.

In the meantime, da Gama made do with a substantial hereditary royal pension of , reis. He was awarded the noble title of Dom lord in perpetuity for himself, his siblings and their descendants.

On 30 January , da Gama was awarded the title of Almirante dos mares de Arabia, Persia, India e de todo o Oriente "Admiral of the Seas of Arabia, Persia, India and all the Orient" — an overwrought title reminiscent of the ornate Castilian title borne by Christopher Columbus evidently, Manuel must have reckoned that if Castile had an 'Admiral of the Ocean Seas', then surely Portugal should have one too.

Francisco de Almeida. However, Pedro Cabral entered into a conflict with the local Arab merchant guilds, with the result that the Portuguese factory was overrun in a riot and up to 70 Portuguese were killed.

Cabral blamed the Zamorin for the incident and bombarded the city. Thus war broke out between Portugal and Calicut. Vasco da Gama invoked his royal letter to take command of the 4th India Armada , scheduled to set out in , with the explicit aim of taking revenge upon the Zamorin and force him to submit to Portuguese terms.

The heavily armed fleet of fifteen ships and eight hundred men left Lisbon on 12 February The 4th Armada was a veritable da Gama family affair.

On the outgoing voyage, da Gama's fleet opened contact with the East African gold trading port of Sofala and reduced the sultanate of Kilwa to tribute, extracting a substantial sum of gold.

On reaching India in October , da Gama's fleet set about capturing any Arab vessel he came across in Indian waters, most notoriously the Miri , a pilgrim ship from Mecca , whose passengers he massacred in open water.

While the Zamorin was willing to sign a new treaty, [34] da Gama made a call to the Hindu king to expel all Muslims from Calicut before beginning negotiations, which was turned down.

The Portuguese fleet then bombarded the city for nearly two days from the sea shore, severely damaging the unfortified city. He also captured several rice vessels and cut off the crew's hands, ears and noses, dispatching them with an insulting note to the Zamorin.

The violent treatment meted out by da Gama quickly brought trade along the Malabar Coast of India, upon which Calicut depended, to a standstill.

But the Zamorin nonetheless refused to submit to Portuguese terms, and even ventured to hire a fleet of strong warships to challenge da Gama's armada which da Gama managed to defeat in a naval battle before Calicut harbor.

Da Gama loaded up with spices at Cochin and Cannanore , small nearby kingdoms, half-vassal and half-at-war with the Zamorin, whose alliances had been secured by prior Portuguese fleets.

The 4th armada left India in early Vasco da Gama arrived back in Portugal in September , effectively having failed in his mission to bring the Zamorin to submission.

When the Portuguese king Manuel I of Portugal decided to appoint the first governor and viceroy of Portuguese India in , da Gama was conspicuously overlooked, and the post given to Francisco de Almeida.

On his second voyage, Vasco da Gama inflicted acts of cruelty upon competing traders and local inhabitants, which sealed his notoriety in India.

They offered their wealth, which "could ransom all the Christian slaves in the Kingdom of Fez and much more" but were not spared.

Da Gama looked on through the porthole and saw the women bringing up their gold and jewels and holding up their babies to beg for mercy.

After demanding the expulsion of Muslims from Calicut to the Hindu Zamorin, the latter sent the high priest Talappana Namboothiri the very same person who conducted da Gama to the Zamorin's chamber during his much celebrated first visit to Calicut in May for talks.

Da Gama called him a spy, ordered the priests' lips and ears to be cut off and after sewing a pair of dog's ears to his head, sent him away.

For the next two decades, Vasco da Gama lived out a quiet life, unwelcome in the royal court and sidelined from Indian affairs.

His attempts to return to the favor of Manuel I including switching over to the Order of Christ in , yielded little.

Almeida , the larger-than-life Afonso de Albuquerque and, later on, Albergaria and Sequeira , were the king's preferred point men for India. After Ferdinand Magellan defected to the Crown of Castile in , Vasco da Gama threatened to do the same, prompting the king to undertake steps to retain him in Portugal and avoid the embarrassment of losing his own "Admiral of the Indies" to Spain.

The decree granted Vasco da Gama and his heirs all the revenues and privileges related, [40] thus establishing da Gama as the first Portuguese count who was not born with royal blood.

Vasco da Gama re-emerged from his political wilderness as an important adviser to the new king's appointments and strategy.

Seeing the new Spanish threat to the Maluku Islands as the priority, Vasco da Gama advised against the obsession with Arabia that had pervaded much of the Manueline period, and continued to be the dominant concern of Duarte de Menezes , then- governor of Portuguese India.

Menezes also turned out to be incompetent and corrupt, subject to numerous complaints. As a result, John III decided to appoint Vasco da Gama himself to replace Menezes, confident that the magic of his name and memory of his deeds might better impress his authority on Portuguese India, and manage the transition to a new government and new strategy.

By his appointment letter of February , John III granted Vasco da Gama the privileged title of " Viceroy ", being only the second Portuguese governor to enjoy that title the first was Francisco de Almeida in After a troubled journey [ clarification needed ] four or five of the ships were lost en route , he arrived in India in September.

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